Archaic bronze:
Metal casting technique used as early as the Shang dynasty (1765 - 1100 BC) in China to produce ceremonial vessels for banquet and temple use, urns for temple use, decorative figures, and other shapes, prized by royalty for centuries.

Bodhisattva:
Buddhist saints who postpone the joys of nirvana to serve as guides to other earthly seekers.

Chinoiserie:
French term applied to all decorative Western designs influenced by Chinese art, which became a fad in the 18th century. Most featured pseudo-Chinese figures in European interpretations of Asian landscapes taken from porcelain and pottery.

Chop:
Seal used by Asian craftsmen and collectors for more than a thousand years bearing witness to ownership of valuable pieces of art.

Coromandel:
Traditional technique involving careful application of many layers of lacquer, which are then carved in intricate patterns, historically associated with the Coromandel Coast of India.

Dun lang:
Shape treasured in Asian porcelains revealing wheel-spun traces of potter's hand.

Eighteen Lohan:
Personal disciples of Buddha who possess supernatural powers, found adorning the main hall of most Buddhist monasteries.

Japanning:
Imitation of genuine Chinese and Japanese lacquerwork, often used for all types of lacquer simulation including wood or metal painted and varnished to look like lacquer. Also called "Japan work."

Kimgun:
Term originating in Kipling's novels of India, used by Lawrence & Scott to describe proprietary line of lamps inspired by art of the British colonial period.

Lacquer:
Glossy coating, formerly made of resinous material of the lacquer tree, applied to wood, fabric, metal, basketry or other bases, and often carved for painting.

Lei-wen:
Thunder pattern, often featured in relief on archaic bronzes.

Obi:
Wide belt for traditional Japanese kimono; antique obis are mounted by Lawrence & Scott on nubby raw silk and framed.

Sandcasting:
Production technique where molten metal is poured into a sand mold.

Tao tieh:
Dragon mask motif, popular in Shang Dynasty (1700 - 1100 BC).

Tixi: Carved marble lacquer featuring slanted V- or U-shaped grooves to show off the layered effect. Chinese word for "rhinoceros skin," referring to the spiral scroll and cloud-like shapes characterizing this style. Also known as "xipi" in Chinese and "guri" in Japanese.

Verdigris:
Blue-green crust on brass or bronze caused by prolonged exposure to air or sea water, giving ancient metal pieces their "archaic" coloring.





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